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Sustainable Development Glossary - Selected Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements

Researched and Compiled by Thomas C. Esakin (March 2008; Section 1 updated May 2008.)



Section 1: Historical Chronology - Sustainable Development as a Concept and then in Practice


NOTES: Most information used in this document has been taken directly from the World Wide Web.
Proper academic referencing has been used throughout, alongside each and every source listed.


1. Historical Chronology - Sustainable Development as a Concept and then in Practice:
Meetings and publications, and United Nations (UN) conferences, conventions, treaties, protocols and documents; all important to the development of Sustainable Development.



Background:

Origins for the concept of “sustainable development” are generally credited to the World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development, published in 1980 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (see their listing below), and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Simon Dresner, in his book the Principles of SUSTAINABILITY (2002, published by EARTHSCAN in London, UK), suggests that early development of the concept goes back even further in history to 1974 and a World Council of Churches (WCC) ecumenical study conference on Science and Technology for Human Development, which coined the phrase ‘sustainable society’.


UN Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE) (1972 in Stockholm)

UNCHE web-page is found at:

Stockholm 1972: Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment [online]. United Nations Environment Programme. Available from: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=97 [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNCHE:

UNCHE was the first conference to lay the foundations for environmental action at an international level. Following this conference, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) was established in order to encourage United Nations agencies to integrate environmental measures into their programmes.



United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) (1972)

UNEP web-page is found at:

Homepage [online]. United Nations Environment Programme. Available from: http://www.unep.org/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNEP:

“UNEP Mission: To provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.”

SOURCE:
About UNEP: The Organization
[online]. United Nations Environment Programme. Available from: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=43 [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
(1973, entered into force in 1975)


CITES web-page is found at:

Homepage [online]. CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available from: http://www.cites.org [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of CITES is found at:

(1973. Amended 1979). Text of the Convention [online]. CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available from: http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of CITES:

“CITES is an international agreement between governments whose aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.”

SOURCE:
What is CITES?
[online]. CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available from: http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) (1979)

CMS web-page is found at:

Homepage [online]. CMS: Convention on Migratory Species. Available from: http://www.cms.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of CMS is found at:

(1979). Convention Text [online]. CMS: Convention on Migratory Species. Available from: http://www.cms.int/documents/convtxt/cms_convtxt.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of CMS:

CMS is an intergovernmental treaty that “...aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range...” and is “...concerned with the conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale.”

SOURCE:
Introduction to the Convention on Migratory Species
[online]. CMS: Convention on Migratory Species. Available from: http://www.cms.int/about/intro.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (aka The Brundtland Commission)
(1983 to 1987: Final Report “Our Common Future”
:


The WCED’s Final Report can be found at:

(1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future [online]. UN Documents Cooperation Circles. Available from: http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

The UN General Assembly’s acceptance of the WCED’s Report is found at:

(1999). United Nations General Assembly A/ RES/ 42/ 187: 96th plenary meeting 11 December 1987 - Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development [online]. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of WCED:

The WCED or Brundtland Commission, headed by Ms. Gro Harlem Brundtland (a former Prime Minister of Norway), is the international body which popularised the concept of sustainable development.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

This WCED developed what is still, today, our planet’s most popular definition of sustainable development:

“Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

SOURCE:
UN Documents Cooperation Circles. (1987). Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World - An Overview by the World Commission on Environment and Development: Section 1.3.27 The Global Challenge - Sustainable Development [online]. Available from: http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov.htm [Accessed: 03 May 2008].


The United Nations established the WCED as an independent body in 1983. The UN’s General Assembly charged the WCED with the following mandate:

“8. ...the Special Commission, when established, should focus mainly on the following terms of reference for its work:

(a) To propose long-term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development to the year 2000 and beyond;

(b) To recommend ways in which concern for the environment may be translated into greater co-operation among developing countries and between countries at different stages of economic and social development and lead to the achievement of common and mutually supportive objectives which take account of the interrelationships between people, resources, environment and development;

(c) To consider ways and means by which the international community can deal more effectively with environmental concerns, in the light of the other recommendations in its report;

(d) To help to define shared perceptions of long-term environmental issues and of the appropriate efforts needed to deal successfully with the problems of protecting and enhancing the environment, a long-term agenda for action during the coming decades, and aspirational goals for the world community, taking into account the relevant resolutions of the session of a special character of the Governing Council in 1982;...”

SOURCE:
(1983). United Nations General Assembly A/ RES/ 38/ 161: 19 December 1983: Meeting no. 102 - Process of preparation of the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond [online]. United Nations General Assembly. Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/38/a38r161.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

The WCED was an unprecedented Commission for many reasons, including that it was the 1st ever to hold global public hearings on all continents of earth AND that its ground-breaking conclusions were arrived at unanimously by its panel of prominent citizens and experts.


UN Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (CPOL)
(1985, entered into force in 1988)


CPOL web-page is found at:

(2006). Homepage [online]. United Nations Environment Programme: Ozone Secretariat. Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of CPOL is found at:

(2001). The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer [online]. Secretariat for The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer & The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/pdfs/viennaconvention2002.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of CPOL:

The CPOL is an international agreement to

“...protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from modifications of the ozone layer...”.

SOURCE:
(2006). Preamble: Handbook for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer [online]. United Nations Environment Programme: Ozone Secretariat. Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/VC_Handbook/Section_1_The_Vienna_Convention/Preamble.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol)
(1987, entered into force in 1989)


Montreal Protocol web-page is found at:

(2006). Homepage [online]. United Nations Environment Programme: Ozone Secretariat. Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of Montreal Protocol is found at:

(2000). The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer: as either adjusted and/or amended in London 1990, Copenhagen 1992, Vienna 1995, Montreal 1997, Beijing 1999 [online].. United Nations Environment Programme: Ozone Secretariat. Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/pdfs/Montreal-Protocol2000.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of Montreal Protocol:

Montreal Protocol is an international treaty to reduce Ozone damaging and depleting chemicals (“CFCs” or chlorofluorocarbons and “HCFCs” or hydrochloroflurocarbons).



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1988)

IPCC web-page is found at:

(2006). Homepage [online]. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: UNEP. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) (Full Report), released in 2007, is found at:

(2007). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report [online]. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: UNEP. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-syr.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) (Summary for Policy Makers), released in 2007, found at:

(2007). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report - Summary for Policymakers [online]. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: UNEP. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of IPCC:

IPCC - Recognizing that problems could arise for humans and all other of earth’s life forms from human-induced global climate change, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. It is open to all members of the UN and WMO.

“The IPCC does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Its role is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the latest scientific, technical and socio-economic literature produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change, its observed and projected impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.”

SOURCE:
About IPCC
[online]. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: UNEP. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) (aka the Earth Summit)
(1992 in Rio de Janeiro - held on 20th anniversary of UNHE).

(The UNCED included a “ Global Forum” of NGOs, which was given a then ground-breaking “Consultative Status” by the UN).

UNCED / Earth Summit web-page is found at:

(1997). Earth Summit: UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992) [online]. United Nations Department of Public Information. Available from: http://www.un.org/geninfo/bp/enviro.html [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNCED / Earth Summit:
(The following related information is all taken from the above-referenced source on the UNCED.)

“The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was unprecedented for a UN conference, in terms of both its size and the scope of its concerns. Twenty years after the first global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink economic development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet. Hundreds of thousands of people from all walks of life were drawn into the Rio process. They persuaded their leaders to go to Rio and join other nations in making the difficult decisions needed to ensure a healthy planet for generations to come.”

Conference:
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992
Informal name: The Earth Summit
Host Government: Brazil
Number of Governments participating: 172, 108 at level of heads of State or Government
Conference Secretary-General: Maurice F. Strong, Canada
Principal themes: Environment and sustainable development
NGO presence: Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs); 17,000 people attended the parallel NGO Forum
Resulting document: Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the Statement of Forest Principles, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
Follow-up mechanisms: Follow-up mechanisms: Commission on Sustainable Development; Inter-agency Committee on Sustainable Development; High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development


Agenda 21 (1992)

Agenda 21 web-page is found at:

(2004). Agenda 21 [online]. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/index.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of Agenda 21:

Simply stated, Agenda 21 is an international, national and local plan of action for humans and their societies (their governments, businesses, community organisations and right down to the level of their families) to achieve sustainable development. It is an action plan for sustainable development which arose from the UNCED, as agreed to by more than 178 national governments participating at this Earth Summit.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

“Agenda 21 recognizes that broad public participation in decision-making is one of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development, and identifies specific roles and responsibilities for nine major groups of civil society: women, children and youth, indigenous people, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, scientific and technological communities, and farmers.”

SOURCE:
(2005). The United Nations Division for Sustainable Development In Brief [online]. United Nations Department of Public Information. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/desa/aboutus/dsd.html [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (Rio Declaration) (1992)

Text of Rio Declaration is found at:

(2000). United Nations General Assembly A/ CONF.151/ 26 (Vol. I) - 12 August 1992: Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - Rio Declaration on Environment and Development [online]. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of Rio Declaration:

Rio Declaration was a statement of 27 principles arising from the UNCED, as agreed to by more than 178 national governments participating at the Earth Summit.


United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
(1992, entered into force in 1993)


UNCBD web-page is found at:

(2008). Homepage [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of UNCBD is found at:

(2007). Text of the Convention [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNCBD:

UNCBD is an international treaty to protect and sustain the diversity of life on earth, a variety of life referred to as “biodiversity”.

Biodiversity includes plants, animals, microorganisms, genetic differences between and within species, and ecosystems (such as deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, streams, and agricultural landscapes) . An integral part of biodiversity includes interactions between all life forms on earth and earth’s environment(s).

SOURCE:
(2007). Sustaining Life on Earth [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/convention/guide.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests (SPSMF) (1992)

Text of SPSMF is found at:

(2000). United Nations General Assembly A/ CONF.151/ 26 (Vol. II) - 14 August 1992: Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement on Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests [online]. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-3annex3.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of SPSMF:

Non-legally binding Principles on forestry practices arising from the UNCED, as agreed to by more than 178 national governments participating at the Earth Summit.




UN Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (Basel Convention) (1989, entered in to force in 1992)

Basel Convention web-page is found at:

Welcome to the website of the Basel Convention [online]. Basel Convention. Available from: http://www.basel.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the Basel Convention is found at:

(1989). Welcome to the website of the Basel Convention [online]. Basel Convention. Available from: http://www.basel.int/text/con-e-rev.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


Explanation of Basel Convention:

Basel Convention “...is the most comprehensive global environmental agreement on hazardous and other wastes... [and] aims to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects resulting from the generation, management, transboundary movements and disposal of hazardous and other wastes.”

SOURCE:
Welcome to the website of the Basel Convention
[online]. Basel Convention. Available from: http://www.basel.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



UN Division on Sustainable Development (UNDSD) (1992)

UNDSD web-page is found at:

(2008). Home: About the United Nations Division for Sustainable Development [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNDSD:
(The following related information is all taken from the above-referenced source on the “UNDSD web-page.)

UN Division for Sustainable Development is the UN’s Secretariat (civil service branch) that provides the UN with professional expertise in sustainable development. The Division “...provides leadership and is an authoritative source of expertise within the United Nations system on sustainable development. It promotes sustainable development as the substantive secretariat to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and through technical cooperation and capacity building at international, regional and national levels. The context for the Division’s work is the implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.”



UN Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) (1992)

UNCSD web-page is found at:

(2008). Home: Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/review.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of UNCSD:

UN Commission for Sustainable Development was established by the UN General Assembly in 1992 to ensure effective follow-up on the UNCED / Earth Summit. It is an intergovernmental body whose members are elected from amongst the Member States of the United Nations and its specialized agencies. The Commission is responsible for reviewing progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; as well as providing policy guidance to follow up the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) at the local, national, regional and international levels. “

SOURCES:
(2007). About: Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/aboutCsd.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

AND

(2005). Mandate of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd_mandate.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(1992, entered into force in 1994)


UNFCC web-page is found at:

Homepage [online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/2860.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


Text of the UNFCCC is found at:

Full Text of the Convention [online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1349.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


Explanation of UNFCC:

UNFCCC - An international treaty for countries to consider what can be done to reduce human-induced global warming and to cope with whatever temperature increases arise from it. The Kyoto Protocol is an addition to the Treaty and has more powerful (and legally binding) measures.

SOURCE:
Essential Background
[online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/items/2877.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(Kyoto Protocol) (1997, entered into force in 2005)


Kyoto Protocol web-page is found at:

Kyoto Protocol: Negotiating the Protocol [online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the Kyoto Protocol is found at:

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/kyoto_protocol/items/1678.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the Kyoto Protocol:

“The Kyoto Protocol - This international agreement, which builds on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, sets legally binding targets and timetables for cutting the greenhouse-gas emissions of industrialized countries....

Emissions trading. Under the Protocol, countries may buy and sell greenhouse-gas emissions "units" and "credits."

Clean development mechanism. The Protocol provides a system for financing emissions-reducing or emissions-avoiding projects in developing nations.

Joint Implementation. Within the Protocol, industrialized countries are granted "emissions reduction units" for financing projects in other developed countries -- a system likely to increase efficiency and reduce the global-warming output of the "transition economies" of central and eastern Europe.”

SOURCE:
Kyoto Protocol: Background
[online]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Available from: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/background/items/2878.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
(1994, entered into force in 1996)


UNCCD web-page is found at:

(2008). Home [online]. UNCCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Available from: http://www.unccd.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].


Text of the UNCCD is found at:

(2007). Text of the Convention to Combat Desertification [online]. UNCCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Available from: http://www.unccd.int/convention/text/convention.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the UNCCD:

“The international community has long recognized that desertification is a major economic, social and environmental problem of concern to many countries in all regions of the world.” The UNCCD is an international response to help address that problem.

SOURCE:
(2007). About The Convention [online]. UNCCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Available from: http://www.unccd.int/convention/menu.php [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].




UN Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (1998, entered into force in 2004)

PIC web-page is found at:

Homepage [online]. Rotterdam Convention. Available from: http://www.pic.int/home.php?type=t&id=5&sid=16 [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the PIC is found at:

(2005). Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade [online]. Rotterdam Convention. Available from: http://www.pic.int/en/ConventionText/ONU-GB.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the PIC:

Rotterdam Convention - The objectives of the Convention are:
● to promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm;
● to contribute to the environmentally sound use of those hazardous chemicals, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.”

SOURCE:
Overview
[online]. Rotterdam Convention. Available from: http://www.pic.int/home.php?type=t&id=5&sid=16 [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].




UN Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity
(2000, entered into force in 2003).


Cartagena Protocol web-page is found at:

(2006). About the Protocol: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/biosafety/about.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the Cartagena Protocol is found at:

(2007). Text of the Protocol: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/biosafety/protocol.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the Cartagena Protocol:

Cartagena Protocol - “...seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The Protocol contains reference to a precautionary approach and reaffirms the precaution language in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol.”

SOURCE:
(2007). Background: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety [online]. Convention on Biological Diversity. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/biosafety/background.shtml [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].



UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (2000)

MDGs web-page is found at:

(2008). Home: The UN Millennium Development Goals [online]. UN Web Services Section, Department of Public Information, United Nations. Available from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the MDGs:
(The following information is taken from the above-referenced source on “MDGs web-page”.)

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are social goals designed for enhancing human development on earth.

“The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - which range from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 – form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions.” These 8 goals are:

“1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
2. Achieve universal primary education.
3. Promote gender equality and empower women.
4. Reduce child mortality.
5. Improve maternal health.
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
8. Develop a global partnership for development.”



UN Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS)
(2001, entered into force in 2004)


POPS web-page is found at:

Home [online]. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). Available from: http://www.pops.int/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the POPS is found at:

Convention Text [online]. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). Available from: http://www.pops.int/documents/convtext/convtext_en.pdf [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the POPS:
(The following information is taken from the above-referenced source on the “POPS web-page”.)

Stockholm Convention - POPS are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife. POPS circulate globally and can cause damage wherever they travel. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPS into the environment.”



UN World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) (2002 in Johannesburg)

WSSD web-page is found at:

(2002). World Summit on Sustainable Development [online]. United Nations. Available from: http://www.un.org/events/wssd/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].
OR
(2002). World Summit on Sustainable Development [online]. United Nations Environment Programme. Available from: http://www.unep.org/wssd/ [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development is found at:

(2004). Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/POI_PD.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Text of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation is found at:

(2005). Johannesburg Plan of Implementation [online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/POIToc.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].

Explanation of the WSSD:

The Johannesburg Summit (WSSD) –brought together tens of thousands of participants, including heads of State and Government, national delegates and leaders from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), businesses and other major groups to focus the world's attention and actions toward sustainable development., including improving people's lives and conserving our natural resources.

Their were three main outcomes of the WSSD:

● “The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development”, the official declaration made by Heads of State and Government ;

● The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation”, negotiated by governments and detailing the action that needs to be taken in specific areas; and

● “Type2 Partnership Initiatives”, commitments by governments and other stakeholders to a broad range of partnership activities and initiatives, adhering to the Guiding Principles, that will implement sustainable development at the national, regional and international level.”

SOURCE:
(2002). World Summit on Sustainable Development [online]. UNEP - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics. Available from: http://www.uneptie.org/Outreach/wssd/postjoburg/wssdoutcomes.htm [Re-accessed: 06 March 2008].