Home / Back

S - Alphabetical Listing of Selected Important Terms and Concepts in Sustainable Development



Setbacks
“Distance from a sensitive ecological feature such as a wetland or stream.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Setbacks [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].


Social Audit
(definition / explanation)

(The SOURCE of the proceeding information is the following:

Srivastava, K.B. Training module on social audit [online]. UN - FAO [Food and Agricultural Organization] Corporate Document Repository. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad346e/ad346e09.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].)

“Social audit is based on the principle that democratic local governance should be carried out, as far as possible, with the consent and understanding of all concerned. It is thus a process and not an event.

A social audit is a way of measuring, understanding, reporting and ultimately improving an organization’s social and ethical performance. A social audit helps to narrow gaps between vision/goal and reality, between efficiency and effectiveness. It is a technique to understand, measure, verify, report on and to improve the social performance of the organization.

Social auditing creates an impact upon governance. It values the voice of stakeholders, including marginalized/poor groups whose voices are rarely heard. Social auditing is taken up for the purpose of enhancing local governance, particularly for strengthening accountability and transparency in local bodies.

The key difference between development and social audit is that a social audit focuses on the neglected issue of social impacts, while a development audit has a broader focus including environment and economic issues, such as the efficiency of a project or programme.

Objectives of social audit
1. Assessing the physical and financial gaps between needs and resources available for local development.
2. Creating awareness among beneficiaries and providers of local social and productive services.
3. Increasing efficacy and effectiveness of local development programmes.
4. Scrutiny of various policy decisions, keeping in view stakeholder interests and priorities, particularly of rural poor.
5. Estimation of the opportunity cost for stakeholders of not getting timely access to public services.

Advantages of social audit
(a) Trains the community on participatory local planning.
(b) Encourages local democracy.
(c) Encourages community participation.
(d) Benefits disadvantaged groups.
(e) Promotes collective decision making and sharing responsibilities.
(f) Develops human resources and social capital.

To be effective, the social auditor must have the right to:
1. seek clarifications from the implementing agency about any decision-making, activity, scheme, income and expenditure incurred by the agency;
2. consider and scrutinize existing schemes and local activities of the agency; and
3. access registers and documents relating to all development activities undertaken by the implementing agency or by any other government department.

This requires transparency in the decision-making and activities of the implementing agencies. In a way, social audit includes measures for enhancing transparency by enforcing the right to information in the planning and implementation of local development activities.”


Social Enterprise
“The practice of operating a business to fulfill a social goal. Organizations that operate this way are also called social enterprises and may be for- profit or not-for-profit entities.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Social Enterprises [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].


Stakeholder
“A person or organization that has a legitimate interest in a project or entity. Also refers to people who could affect or are affected by an organization’s social, environmental and economic performance.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Stakeholder [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Strategic Plan
(provides a similar structure used in Sustainable Development Strategies.)

(The SOURCE of the proceeding information is the following:

(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning -What should a strategic plan include? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_should_strategic.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008]. )

“A strategic plan is simply a document that summarizes, in about ten pages of written text, why an organization [or community] exists, what it is trying to accomplish, and how it will go about doing so. Its "audience" is anyone who wants to know the organization's [or community`s] most important ideas, issues, and priorities…. It is a document that should offer edification and guidance - so, the more concise and ordered the document, the greater the likelihood that it will be useful, that it will be used, and that it will be helpful in guiding the operations of the organization....

These are the sections commonly included in a strategic plan:

I. Introduction by the [Municipal President or] President of the Board
II. Executive Summary
III. [Sustainability] Mission and Vision Statements
IV. [Community or…] Organization Profile and History
V. Critical Issues and Strategies
VI. Program Goals and Objectives
VII. Benchmark and Indicator Statements
VIII. Appendices.”


Strategic Planning
(similar in process to Sustainable Development Strategy Planning)

(The proceeding information is adapted from the following SOURCE:

(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning -What are the key concepts and definitions in strategic planning? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_are_key_concepts.faq [Re-accessed 07 March 2008]. )

“The major difference between strategic planning and long range planning is in emphasis. Long range planning is generally considered to mean the development of a plan of action to accomplish a goal or set of goals over a period of several years. The major assumption in long range planning is that current knowledge about future conditions is sufficiently reliable to enable the development of these plans…. Because [in long range planning] the [general] environment is [FALSELY] assumed to be predictable, the emphasis is on the articulation of internally focused plans to accomplish agreed upon goals.

The major assumption in strategic planning, however, is that an organization must be responsive to a dynamic, changing environment. Some would argue that this was always the case. …Thus, the emphasis in strategic planning is on understanding how the environment is changing and will change, and in developing organizational decisions which are responsive to these changes.”


Strategic Thinking
“Strategic thinking means asking, "Are we doing the right thing?" It requires three things:
1. purpose or end--a strategic thinker is trying to do something;
2. understanding the environment, particularly of the opponent, or opposing forces, affecting and/or blocking achievement of these ends; and
3. creativity in developing effective responses to the opponent or opposing forces.”

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning -What are the key concepts and definitions in strategic planning? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_are_key_concepts.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].


Sustainability Attributes
“The qualities or features of a location, building, product or service that make it perform better in relation to sustainability criteria and which make it more attractive to buyers or users with sustainability objectives.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Sustainability Attributes [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Accessed: 07 March 2008].


Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators
Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators are measurement tools. They are an integral component of the Sustainability Strategies of governments, businesses, industry, NGO's and other civil society organisations. They explain the “which”, “when” and "how" of your Sustainability Strategy: that is, they identify and measure “which” of the specified Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives of the Strategy will be accomplished by “when” (by a given) specific date(s), and "how" you will be able to measure (to identify) whether or not they each have been accomplished.

Otherwise stated, Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators provide a “Time-line” and ways for "measuring" the accomplishment of "specified" Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives.

In the development of a Sustainability Strategy, of first importance is the Sustainability Vision, next is the Sustainability Mission, then come the Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives, before moving on to these Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

ALSO:

Benchmarks are “evidence-based goals”...

SOURCE:
(2006). Benchmarks, Indicators and Ongoing Research [online]. Health Canada. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/pubs/system-regime/2006-wait-attente/2006-wait-attente-2_e.html [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].


....which “... are used to measure progress toward [a] vision.” “Data is tracked over time and regular reports tell” people how they are “doing in achieving benchmark targets.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Compendium: A global directory to indicator initiatives [online]. iisd: International Institute for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.iisd.org/measure/compendium/DisplayInitiative.aspx?id=1706 [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

Benchmarks are essential to helping any group of people (whether in the form of government, community, business, industry, association, or NGO) in understanding the movement they are making toward sustainable development. Particularly, the movement they are making toward achieving the Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives identified in their ‘Sustainability Strategy’. Whereas the Sustainability Strategies & Objectives provide the “map” detailing the sustainable development activities people will acted on, ‘Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators’ are the “signposts” which show the actual movement being made towards - or even away from - achieving the goals and objectives identified in a sustainability strategy.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

ALSO:

“Sustainable development indicators measure sustainability or sustainable development performance” in relation to the benchmarks.

SOURCE:
Roy, Marlene (1995). Sustainable Development Indicators - Selected Sources [online]. iisd: International Institute for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.iisd.org/ic/info/ss9504.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainability Management Reporting System (SMRS)
“A performance-based system that defines sustainability objectives, fosters an integrated approach to achieving them, and provides transparent reporting on results relative to sustainability-related bid commitments and goals, to both internal and external audiences.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Sustainability Management Reporting System (SMRS) [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainability Mission
(defined and explained)

A Sustainability Mission is an integral part of the Sustainability Strategies of governments, businesses, industry, NGO's and other civil society organisations. The Sustainability Mission generally explains the “why” your organisation or community exists ALONG WITH the “how” your organisation or community is going to achieve (work toward) its Sustainability Vision. By necessity, it need balance each of the social, environmental and economic aspects of sustainable development and the organisation's / community's own involvement with any given human society.

In the development of a Sustainability Strategy, of first importance is the Sustainability Vision, next is this Sustainability Mission, then come the Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives, before moving on to the Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

ALSO:

“The mission statement is a short, concise statement that describes what the organization [or community] will strive to bring about -- the reason why the company [or community] exists in terms of its impact on the rest of the world. A good mission statement is neither too specific or too general. If a mission statement is too general, people will either not understand what it means, or people will have very different ideas of what the mission statement means. If it's too specific, it may need to be changed too often as the world changes. The mission statement doesn't change very often. It should be a relatively enduring signpost. Also, the mission statement comes from the vision established previously, during strategic planning. It is a condensation of the more vivid vision.”

SOURCE:
What is a Mission Statement
[online]. Strategic and Business Planning Free Resource Centre. Available from: http://www.work911.com/planningmaster/faq/mission.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

(All of the proceeding information is taken from the following listed SOURCE and is adaptable to include all three (3) elements of sustainable development covered in “Sustainability Strategies”, that being each of sustainable development’s social, economic and environmental factors:

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning - What’s in a mission statement? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_s_in_mission_statement.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

[beginning of full quoted text]
“The Purpose Statement
The purpose statement clearly states all that your organization [or community] seeks to accomplish: Why does your organization [or community] exist? What is the ultimate result of your work [as an organization or community]?

Purpose statements usually include two phrases:
1. an infinitive that indicates a change in status, such as to increase, to decrease, to prevent, to eliminate
2. an identification of the problem or condition to be changed.

An example of a purpose statement is "to eliminate homelessness."

“In defining purpose, it is essential to focus on outcomes and results rather than methods: How is the world going to be different? What is going to change? Thus, the purpose of a mental health counselling agency would never be simply "to provide counselling services," for that is describing a method rather than a result. Rather, the purpose might be "to improve the quality of life" for its clients.

The Business Statement
This statement outlines the "business(es)" (i.e., activities or programs) your organization [or community] chooses in order to pursue its purpose. Specifically, you must answer, "What activity are we going to do to accomplish our purpose?" For example, there are many ways to work on the problem of homelessness:
• to construct housing for homeless individuals
• to educate the public and advocate for public policy changes
• to provide job training to homeless individuals.

Each of these are different businesses, but they may be different means of achieving the same purpose.

Business statements often include the verb "to provide" or link a purpose statement with the words "by" or "through." For example: "To eliminate homelessness by providing job training to homeless individuals."

A cautionary note: If the word "and" is in your purpose or business statement, ask yourselves, "Are we really committed to both ideas connected by the word" and, "or have we simply not been able to accept that one idea is more important?"

Values
Values are beliefs which your organization's members hold in common and endeavour to put into practice. The values guide your organization's members in performing their work. Specifically, you should ask, "What are the basic beliefs that we share as an organization [or community]?"

Examples of values include: a commitment to excellent services, innovation, diversity, creativity, honesty, integrity, and so on. Values may include beliefs such as: "Eating vegetables is more economically efficient and ecologically responsible than eating beef." (Vegetarian Association)

Marvin Weisbord writes in Productive Workplaces that values come alive only when people are involved in doing important tasks. Ideally, an individual's personal values will align with the spoken and unspoken values of the organization. By developing a written statement of the values of the organization [or community], group members have a chance to contribute to the articulation of these values, as well as to evaluate how well their personal values and motivation match those of the organization....

Below is [an] example of a mission statement which includes all three elements:

The YMCA of San Francisco, based in Judeo-Christian heritage [values], seeks to enhance the lives of all people [purpose] through programs designed to develop spirit, mind and body [business].

In addition to the three elements discussed above, you may want to address the following questions in developing your organization's [or community’s] mission statement:
• What is the problem or need your organization [or community] is trying to address?
• What makes your organization unique?
• Who are the beneficiaries of your work?

Clearly, the answers to the these questions could be included in the mission statement or added as elaboration of the mission statement.

How To Write a Mission Statement
There is no formula for finding the wording that best expresses the collective intention of your organization. It can be drafted by one person alone or after input gathered at leadership retreat. The most important issue is that there is consensus on the answers to the questions used in developing the mission statement.

Groups are good at many things, but one of them is not writing. Have group discussions about big ideas and concepts and then let one or two individuals draft and redraft the wording before submitting a reworked version for the group to respond to. It is important to circulate the draft mission statement a few times to …. stakeholders. Some consultants advise organizations to also seek an outside opinion from someone unfamiliar with the organization [or community ] to see how easily the mission statement can be understood.

Mix with passion, humanity and an eye on the big picture, and keep refining the mission statement until you have a version that people can actively support.” [end of full quoted text]



Sustainability Strategic Goals and Objectives
The Sustainability Strategic Goals and Objectives explain the “what”, “where” and “who” of your Sustainability Strategy, that is: “what” things the Strategy is going to do to realise your (government's, community's, business', industry's, NGO's or any other civil society organisation's) Sustainability Vision, “where” its activities will be done, and “who” (i.e. which departments or persons) will be doing the activities. Sustainability Strategic Goals and Objectives need balance each of the social, environmental and economic aspects of an organisation's or community's involvement with any human society. These Goals and Objectives form an essential part of Sustainability Strategies.

In the development of a Sustainability Strategy, of first importance is the Sustainability Vision, next is this Sustainability Mission, then come these Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives, before moving on to the Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

ALSO:

“The strategic goals provide the framework within which the Mission and Vision of the organization are achieved. They are the roadmap for the organization [or community] with important milestones marking the journey.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Strategic Goals and Objectives [online]. Baycrest. Available from: http://www.baycrest.org/About_Baycrest/Strategic_Plan/Goals_and_Objectives/default.asp [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“... goals and objectives are the heart of the ....[sustainability] plan. Mission and vision answer the big questions about why the organization [or community] exists and how it seeks to benefit society, but the goals and objectives are the plan of action - what the organization [or community] intends to "do" over the next few years. As such, ....[these] should serve as a useful guide for operational planning and a reference for evaluation.”

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning - What should a strategic plan include? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_should_strategic.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“The difference between where we are (current status) and where we want to be (vision and goals) is what we do (target objectives and action plans).”

SOURCE:
Setting Goals and Objectives
[online]. National School Boards Association. Available from: http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/sgno.html [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“Strategic goals are statements of what you wish to achieve over the period of the strategic plan (e.g. over the next year, five years, ten years.) They reflect the analysis you do that starts with creating a vision,... and a mission statement, and then your analysis of your ..... strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.”

SOURCE:
What are Strategic Goals?
[online]. Strategic and Business Planning Free Resource Centre. Available from: http://www.work911.com/planningmaster/faq/whataregoals.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“Objectives are usually specific statements (they are actually a particular kind of goal) that contribute to the achievement of "bigger" goals. In other words they are actually goals, but they are more specific. Another term for objectives within a strategic planning framework is to call these "enabling goals", since, if you hit all your objectives, they will contribute to the achievement of the larger strategic goal(s), they enable.”

SOURCE:
What Are Objectives and Are They Different From Strategic Goals?
[online]. Strategic and Business Planning Free Resource Centre. Available from: http://www.work911.com/planningmaster/faq/objectives.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainability Vision
A Sustainability Vision articulates a specific and combined social / economic / environmental ideal to be achieved by an organisation or community. It identifies the “what” a community or government or civil society organisation (whether business, industry, NGO, or any other) is striving to accomplish and/or be AND is similar to stating the best (or perfect) scenario in which the organisation or community could ever find itself. A Sustainability Vision is an essential aspect of Sustainability Strategies. The ideal stated in a Sustainability Vision is best developed through the involvement of all interested employees of the organisation or citizens of the community.

In the development of a Sustainability Strategy, of first importance is this Sustainability Vision, next is the Sustainability Mission, then come the Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives, before moving on to the Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

ALSO:

“The vision is a means of describing [a] desired future”

SOURCE:
What is Visioning, or Creating a Vision?
[online]. Strategic and Business Planning Free Resource Centre. Available from: http://www.work911.com/planningmaster/faq/vision.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“…vision is the most global concept. A vision is quite literally a mental image of the successful accomplishment of the [sustainability] mission, and thus purpose of the organization [sustainability plan].”

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning - What are the key concepts and definitions in strategic planning? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_are_key_concepts.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

AND

A vision for planning in sustainable development is important as “Strategic planning frameworks are more likely to be successful when they have a long-term vision of sustainable development with transparent objectives, and when they include clear priorities upon which stakeholders agree.”

SOURCE:
OECD (2001). ‘Strategies for Sustainable Development: Practical Guidance for Development Co-operation’ in OECD / UNDP Sustainable Development Strategies: A Resource Book. London: EARTHSCAN.

ALSO:

“A vision is a guiding image of success formed in terms of a contribution to society. If a strategic plan is the "blueprint" for an organization's work, then the vision is the "artist's rendering" of the achievement of that plan. It is a description in words that conjures up a similar picture for each member of the group of the destination of the group's work together.” ….A vision statement should be realistic and credible, well articulated and easily understood, appropriate, ambitious, and responsive to change. It should orient the group's energies and serve as a guide to action. It should be consistent with the organization's values. In short, a vision should challenge and inspire the group to achieve its [sustainability] mission.”

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning - What’s in a vision statement? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_s_in_vision_statement.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

ALSO:

“Caution: Do not try to write a vision statement with a group. (Groups are great for many things, but writing is not one of them!). Ask one or two people to try drafting a vision statement based on the group's discussion, bring it back to the group, and revise it until you have something that your members can agree on and that your leaders share with enthusiasm.”

SOURCE:
(2004). Frequently Asked Questions - Strategic Planning - What’s in a vision statement? [online]. Alliance for Nonprofit Management. Available from: http://www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning/what_s_in_vision_statement.faq [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainable Agriculture
“Farming that provides a secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports the rural community; and offers respect and fair treatment to all involved, from farm workers to consumers to the animals raised for food.”

SOURCE:
introduction to sustainability: sustainable dictionary - Sustainable agriculture
[online]. Sustainable Table. Available from: http://www.sustainabletable.org/intro/dictionary/ [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainable Cities
“A sustainable city enhances the economic, social, cultural and environmental well-being of current and future generations.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Homepage [online]. International Centre for Sustainable Cities - ICSC. Available from: http://www.icsc.ca/ [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

OR

“Being a sustainable city means "improving the quality of life in a city, including ecological, cultural, political, institutional, social and economic components without leaving a burden on future generations.”

SOURCE:
(2001). Sustainable Cities: Environmentally Sustainable Urban Development [online]. The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. Available from: http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/SustainableCities/ [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

OR

UN-HABITAT’s “Thrust” of a sustainable city:

• Broad-based stakeholder involvement in city development strategies.
• Participatory problem-solving through inclusive processes and pro-poor governance.
• Mobilisation of local resources and commitment.
• A framework for capacity development and support for institutions leading to better implementation.
• Mainstreaming environmental concerns in urban planning and management.
• An instrument for implementing UNEP's Agenda 21 mission at the city level, and the environmental component of the Habitat Agenda, the Declaration on Cities and other Human Settlements and the Millennium Declaration.

SOURCE:
Sustainable Cities Programme
[online]. UN-HABITAT: United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Available from: http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=5025&catid=540&typeid=19&subMenuId=0 [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].




Sustainable Development Strategies
(aka Sustainability Strategies OR “LA21s” for Local Agenda 21s; whether local or national)

“A ... sustainable development strategy aims to build upon and harmonize the various sectoral economic, social and environmental policies and plans existing in a... [given geographic area or for a specific organisatiion] ...to ensure socially responsible economic development while protecting the resource base for the benefit of future generations. “

SOURCE:
National Sustainable Development Strategy
[online]. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isdms2001/isd-ms2001institutional.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

AND

Sustainable Development Strategies are developed through a far-reaching, inclusive, bottom-up, two-way, consultative process: one which purposely seeks to engage all identified segments and interested members of a community if undertaken by government (or of an organisation, if it is undertaken for business, industry, NGOs or any other civil society entity). The broad involvement of stakeholders (whether friend or foe) is considered essential to these strategies, for to achieve degrees of success by advancing sustainable development, they must have local support and willing local participation. Sustainable Development Strategies include a Sustainability Vision, Mission, Strategic Goals & Objectives, and Benchmarks & Indicators.

SOURCE:
Esakin, Thomas C. (2008). Important Terms, Concepts and International Agreements in Sustainable Development. Citation of unpublished document.

AND

Core principles of Sustainable Development Strategies

(SOURCE for the proceeding information:
OECD / UNDP (2002). “Key principles for developing sustainable development strategies”. Sustainable Development Strategies. A Resource Book. EARTHSCAN, pps. 33-35.)

1. Political support at the highest level
2. Co-ordinating body with authority.
3. Funding within a multi-year budgetary framework.
4. The strategy is a journey, not a destination, evolving with time.
5. Bottom-up, community-driven, process focused on people.
6. Participatory, inclusive, and engaging.
7. Integrate social, environmental, and economic objectives across communities / sectors, territories, and generations.
8. Capacity-building (education) and relationship-building are designed into the strategy.
9. Dispute-settlement mechanism (DSM).
10. Vision Statement.
11. Mission Statement. (Methodology)
12. Realistic Sustainability Strategic Goals & Objectives.
13. Sustainability Benchmarks & Indicators
14. Ongoing, proactive, public communications.
15. Independent audit with community feedback loop.



Sustainable Purchasing
“Sustainable purchasing involves the consideration of social, ethical and environmental criteria in addition to other operational criteria in the selection and monitoring of suppliers, contractors and licensees. In a social compliance program the emphasis is on ensuring human rights and safe workplaces. When third party experts visit factories to assess compliance, it is called independent factory monitoring.”

SOURCE:
(2008). Sustainability: Glossary - Sustainable Purchasing [online]. Vancouver 2010. Available from: http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/Sustainability/Glossary [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



Sustainable Table
Sustainable eating, which takes in to account the social, economic and environmental aspects of all food you select for eating at your own kitchen table.

SOURCE:
introduction to sustainability: sustainable dictionary
[online]. Sustainable Table. Available from: http://www.sustainabletable.org/intro/dictionary/ [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].



SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats)
(All of the proceeding information is taken from the following listed SOURCE:

What Is A SWOT Analysis? [online]. Strategic and Business Planning Free Resource Centre. Available from: http://www.work911.com/planningmaster/faq/swot.htm [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].

“SWOT is a strategic planning tool, usually used as part of doing an environmental [i.e. a complete economic, social and environmental] scan, that help identify external factors that need to be planned for, and internal factors (i.e. strengths and weaknesses) that need to be planned for in determining where a business [or community] should be going in the future.

More specifically, the process involves identifying STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS (which is what the letters SWOT stand for).

The SWOT analysis can be done as part of strategic planning, but it can also be done independently of the larger process as a standalone.

By capitalizing on one's strengths, and minimizing or correcting one's weaknesses, a company [or community] is better able to take advantage of opportunities as they emerge, and cope with threats before they become dangerous.”


System Conditions
“In the sustainable society, nature is not subject to systematically increasing:
1. concentrations of substances extracted from the Earth's crust,
2. concentrations of substances produced by society,
3. degradation by physical means and, in that society..
4. people are not subject to conditions that systematically undermine their capacity to meet their needs.”

SOURCE:
The Four System Conditions
[online]. The Natural Step. Available from: http://www.naturalstep.ca/system-conditions.html [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].


Systems Thinking
“…recogniz[es] that what happens in one part of a system affects every other part…. [Understanding the broader system within which problems occur and the principles governing success within that system. These principles for success then provide a practical set of design criteria that can be used to direct social, environmental and economic actions…”

SOURCE:
The Natural Step Framework
[online]. The Natural Step. Available from: : http://www.naturalstep.ca/understanding-sustainability.html [Re-accessed: 07 March 2008].